First Years Guide to Ace Astronomy: A Study Guide

written by Lily Lavender

This book is intended for all who need a quick study reference guide for ASTR-101. It has a glossary of terms & its appropriate meanings for the entire course. Each chapter is based on a lesson; where it won't go into grave detail, but will give you the necessary components to study for upcoming tests & assignments. This does not include mid-term & final exams. All detailed information about each topic is in your official lessons with the Professor. DO NOT COPY AS IT IS PLAGIARISM!

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Lesson Seven: The Sun & the Planets in the Solar System Study Guide

Chapter 8

Revolution of the Planets Around the Sun

The Moon, Sun, planets, & stars rotate the Earth once every day. Ptolemy's belief was that since Venus has all phases, not only the crescent phase, some planets do not revolve around the Sun. Martianus Capella's theory of the Sun, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, & the stars rotate the Earth, but Mercury & Venus rotate the Sun is true. Every planet rotates in an axis line. It goes through the planets center to its two poles. In the middle of the planet is where the equator is. Mercury is the smallest planet, whereas Jupiter is the largest planet. Iron oxide makes Mars a red color which covers the entire planet with dust & its atmosphere is made up of carbon dioxide, which creates the dust storms. Copernicus theorized that the planets rotated in epicycles. Johannes Kepler studied this theory & created three laws.

First Law ⊱ Planets rotate the Sun in an ellipse & the Sun is off to one side (foci).
Second Law ⊱ An imaginary line for each phase in the ellipse & a planet will increase speed when close to the Sun.
Third Law ⊱ Planets move quicker when close to the Sun & divide the square number by the cube.

Isaac Newton's Laws of Motion & Formula

First Law ⊱ The object moves in a straight line.
Second Law ⊱ To force an object to alter its speed, mass, & the rate of change.
Third Law ⊱ If an object forces another object to move, the object being forced will move the first object in the opposite way.

(mass object 1) x (mass object 2) = constant
(distance between the objects)^2

Fun Facts
In 1543, eighteen centuries after Aristarchus, Nicolaus Copernicus wrote a book about the theory of the solar system revolves around the Sun.
Galileo agreed with the solar system revolving around the Sun theory when he studied Venus' phases.
The distance between the Sun & the Earth is 149,597,870.7 km (92,955,807.3 m).
The length of orbit is aphelion + perihelion, whereas the amount of the Sun being off centered is aphelion + perihelion divided by the length.

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